代写MSc Software作业、Java程序设计作业调试、代写Predictive Text Entry Java实验作业

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Worksheet 3: Predictive Text Entry

MSc Software Workshop, Spring Term 2018-19

Designed by Seyyed Shah and Uday Reddy

Assigned: Thursday, 7th February, 2019

Intermediate Progress Review : parts 1 and 2, Thursday, 14th February, 6:30pm

Final Deadline : All Parts, Thursday, 21st February, 9:00pm.

As usual, include in your submission:

1. appropriate comments and JavaDoc.

2. thorough testing. (You may use JUnit wherever applicable.)

As well as data structures and algorithm complexity, this exercise assesses several concepts

taught during the course. If you don’t understand any part of the exercise, please ask course

instructors.

Start early. The questions get progressively harder. All work and progress on the exercise

must be submitted using Canvas.

Contents

1 Prototypes and Design (25%) 3

2 Storing and Searching a Dictionary(25%) 5

3 More Efficiency (25%) 7

4 Prefix-matching (25%) 8

1

Introduction

In this worksheet, you will write the algorithms for a sample application using the Java

Collection classes. In the next worksheet, you will attach a Graphical User Interface (GUI)

to make it a full application. The sample application is that of predictive text.

Before the advent of touch screens, mobile telephones in English-speaking countries used

a keypad like this one:

1 2 (abc) 3 (def)

4 (ghi) 5 (jkl) 6 (mno)

7 (pqrs) 8 (tuv) 9 (wxyz)

* space #

As you notice, there are keys for digits 1–9, used for dialing phone numbers. But these keys

were also used to enter letters a–z. When a text message needed to be entered, the keys

corresponding to the letters would be used. However, since there are multiple letters on each

key, the required letter needed to be disambiguated somehow.

In the basic system without predictive text, the user must press the appropriate key a

number of times for a particular letter to be shown. Consider the word “hello”. With this

method, the user must press 4, 4, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5, then pause, then 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6.

To enter text more easily, the system of predictive text (also called “T9”) was devised. The

user presses each key only once and the mobile phone uses a dictionary to guess what word

is being typed using a dictionary, and displays the possible matches. So the word “hello” can

be typed in 5 button presses “43556” without pauses, instead of 13 in the standard system.

The numeric string “43556” is referred to as a “signature” of the world “hello”. If this is the

only match, the user can press space and carry on. If there are multiple matches, the user

might need to select one of them before proceeding.

A given numeric-signature may correspond to more than one word. Predictive text

technology is possible by restricting available words to those in a dictionary. Entering the

numeric signature “4663” produces the words “gone” and “home” in many dictionaries.

In this exercise, you will design and develop a predictive text system. For simplicity,

assume that the user does not need punctuation or numerals. You must also limit your

solutions to producing only lower-case words.

The final version of your programs should use the words dictionary available with the

worksheet on canvas. However, during testing, it is better for you to create a small dictionary

file of your own for which you know what outputs to expect.

All the classes in this worksheet should be placed in a package called predictive. Use

the class/method names given in the questions.

2

1 Prototypes and Design (25%)

This part deals with building a “prototype” for the predictive text problem, which is not

expected to be efficient, but it will be simple and allow you to compare it with the efficient

implementation to be done in later parts.

Write the first two methods in a class named PredictivePrototype inside the package

predictive.

1. (5%) : Write a method wordToSignature with the type:

public static String wordToSignature(String word)

The method takes a word and returns a numeric signature. For example, “home” should

return “4663”. If the word has any non-alphabetic characters, replace them with a “

” (space) in the resulting signature. Accumulate the result character-by-character.

You should do this using the StringBuffer class rather than String. Explain, in your

comments, why this will be more efficient.

2. (10%): Write another method signatureToWords with the type:

public static Set<String> signatureToWords(String signature)

It takes the given numeric signature (passed to it as a String) and returns a set of

possible matching words from the dictionary (as a Set of Strings). The returned list

must not have duplicates and each word should be in lower-case.

The method signatureToWords will need to use the dictionary to find words that

match the string signature and return all the matching words.

In this part of the exercise, you should not store the dictionary in your Java program.

Explain in the comments why this implementation will be inefficient.

3. (10%): Create command-line programs (classes with main methods) as follows:

Words2SigProto for calling the wordToSignature method, and

Sigs2WordsProto for calling the signatureToWords method.

Each program must accept a list of strings and call the appropriate method to do the

conversion.

Hints:

Use the Scanner class to read the dictionary line by line, assuming there is only one

word per line.

When reading the dictionary, ignore lines with non-alphabetic characters. A useful

helper method to accomplish this would be:

static boolean isValidWord(String word)

in PredictivePrototype, which checks if a given word is valid.

3

Words in the dictionary with upper case letters should be converted to lower-case

because only lower-case letters should be returned by the signatureToWords method.

You should be able to complete this part of the Worksheet and test it in about one lab

session.

To create the command-line programs, you will need to use the args array of the

method:

public static void main(String[] args)

which contains the command line input. For example, when executing

java predictive.Words2SigProto Hello World! this is the input

the args array will contain

["Hello", "World!", "this", "is", "the", "input"]

You should ignore any words with non-alphabetic characters given in the input of

Sigs2WordsProto.

Format the output of Sigs2WordsProto as one line per signature, as there may be

more than one word for a given numeric signature. E.g.

java predictive.Sigs2WordsProto 4663 329

4663 : good gone home hone hood hoof

329 : dax fax faz day fay daz

the actual output you get will depend on the dictionary used.

Notice that the package name predictive qualifies the class name, and this command

works in the main directory.

The program Words2SigProto can be tested by converting large amounts of text to

signatures, the output can be used to test Sigs2WordsProto (and later, in timing

comparisons). Try using news articles to start with.

4

2 Storing and Searching a Dictionary(25%)

In the remaining parts of the worksheet, you are asked to implement a number of dictionary

classes that will be more efficient than the prototype. All of these classes should implement

this interface:

public interface Dictionary{

public Set<String> signatureToWords(String signature);

}

The required method signatureToWords finds the possible words that could correspond to

a given signature and returns them as a set.

In this part, you will read and store the dictionary in memory as a list of pairs. As the

list will be sorted and in memory, a faster look-up technique can be used.

1. (15%) : Create a class named ListDictionary.

Write a constructor for the class ListDictionary that takes a String path to the

dictionary, reads and stores it in an ArrayList. Each entry of the ArrayList must be

a pair, consisting of the word that has been read in and its signature. For this purpose,

you will need to create a class named WordSig that pairs words and signatures (see

the hints).

The wordToSignature method will be the same so you can re-use the code from the

first part.

The signatureToWords method must be re-written as an instance method in the

ListDictionary class to use the stored dictionary. The ArrayList<WordSig> must

be stored in sorted order and the signatureToWords method must use binary search

to perform the look-ups.

2. (10%) : Design and create a command-line program Sigs2WordsList for testing the

ListDictionary class.

Compare the time taken to complete the execution of Sigs2WordsList and Sigs2-

WordsProto with the same large input(s). Is it possible to make the time difference

between Sigs2WordsList and Sigs2WordsProto noticeable? Make a note of the data

you use and your timing results.

Hints :

Create a class which pairs the numeric signatures with words, like this:

public class WordSig implements Comparable<WordSig>{

private String words;

private String signature;

public WordSig (...) { ... }

5

public int compareTo(WordSig ws) { ... }...}

When you read the dictionary you will need to create new WordSig objects.

A list of Comparable objects can be sorted using the method Collections.sort1.

To automatically sort a list using the collections API, the objects WordSig stored in

the list must implement the Comparable interface. That means they must have a

compareTo(...) method. compareTo returns -1, 0 or 1 according to whether the

current object is less than, equal to, or greater than the argument object, in the

intended ordering.

Sort the dictionary only once.

You must decide how to define the compareTo method so as to allow efficient search for

signatures. Even though, normally, you are expected to redefine the equals method

to be consistent with compareTo, for this version of the program, you can ignore this

requirement. That is, you should not attempt to define an equals method.

You can search a sorted list using Collections.binarySearch. Its simplified type can

be written as follows:

static <T> int binarySearch(List<T>, T)

Note that the type variable T in both the arguments must be the same.

Binary search will return the index of the first match it finds. You must return all

matching words. Scan above and below the found index to collect all matching words.

There are many ways of timing your application. One possible solution is given at the

following link: https://bit.ly/2Stn3qk

1Find out more about collections and the comparable interface in the Java tutorial on Collections: https:

//docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/Collections.html

6

3 More Efficiency (25%)

This part involves creating an improved implementation of the Dictionary interface using

a Map data structure.

1. (20%) : Implement a new class MapDictionary.

Write a constructor for the class MapDictionary that takes a String path to the

dictionary and stores the dictionary in a multi-valued Map. In this context, a “multivalued

map” is a data structure that maps each signature to set of words. Using a Map,

data can be retrieved quickly by looking up a signature as in ListDictionary, but

now it does not require scanning either side of the index as earlier. MapDictionary

will also allow efficient insertion of new words in the dictionary while still allowing fast

look-up.

You must choose a Map implementation from the Java Collections API. Explain how

the map works and justify your choice in a comment.

Write a method signatureToWords that returns, in a Set<String>, only the matching

whole words for the given signature. The character length of each returned word must

be the same as the input signature.

2. (5%) : Create a program Sigs2WordsMap that uses the MapDictionary class. It should

be possible to modify just one line in your Sigs2WordsList program so that it can

work with any given implementation of the Dictionary interface.

Hints:

The MapDictionary class must implement Dictionary. Do not use the WordSig class.

When deciding what your Map will store in MapDictionary, keep in mind that one

signature often corresponds to several words.

When developing ListDictionary, you may have noticed that it was useful to create

helper methods to add words to the data structure. Creating add helpers will simplify

the constructors of both MapDictionary and TreeDictionary.

7

4 Prefix-matching (25%)

This part involves creating another improved implementation of the Dictionary interface

using your own tree data structure. This should allow the words or parts of words that

match partial signatures, so that the users will be able to see the parts of the words they are

typing as they type.

1. (20%) : Implement a new class TreeDictionary that now stores the dictionary in your

own tree implementation. It should support efficient search as well as efficient insertion

of new words. In addition, TreeDictionary should support finding words when only

some initial part of the signature (a prefix ) is known. This is so that the user can see

the part of the word they intend to type as they are typing.

The TreeDictionary class forms a recursive data structure, similar to, but more

general than binary trees taught in this semester. This tree differs in that each node

now has up to eight branches, one for each number (2-9) that is allowed in a signature.

Each path of the tree (from the root to a node) represents a signature or part of a

signature. At each node of the tree, you must store a collection of all the words that

can possibly match the partial signature along the path. That means that every word

that has a prefix corresponding to the partial signature appears in the collection. For

example, if the dictionary has the words a, ant and any, then the words at nodes

corresponding to paths would be as follows:

at node 2, we have a, ant and any,

at node 2, 6, we have ant and any.

at node 2, 6, 8, we have only ant.

Write a constructor for the class TreeDictionary that takes a String path to the

dictionary and populates the tree with words.

Write a method signatureToWords that returns, in a Set<String>, the matching

words (and prefixes of words) for the given signature. The character length of each of

the returned words or prefixes must be the same as the input signature.

2. (5%) : Create a program Sigs2WordsTree, similar to Sigs2WordsMap, that uses the

TreeDictionary class.

Compare the time taken to complete the execution of Sigs2WordsMap and Sigs2WordsTree

with large inputs. Is it possible to make the time difference between Sigs2WordsList

and Sigs2WordsMap or Sigs2WordsTree and Sigs2WordsMap noticeable? Again, make

a note of the data you use and your timing results.

Hints:

The TreeDictionary class must implement Dictionary. Do not use the WordSig

class.

8

Before starting TreeDictionary, sketch a tree-dictionary containing 2-3 words.

Every node of TreeDictionary will have a collection of words and eight TreeDictionarys.

You may use an array of TreeDictionary or just store several objects, as you prefer.

The root node of TreeDictionary should not store any words.

In TreeDictionary it is more memory efficient to store only whole words as read-in

from the dictionary. You should do this and write a helper-method to trim all the

words in a given list to produce the output of signatureToWords.